Based on the "Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment," by Schoenbach, discuss two
significant insights you learned about confounding. Use specific examples from the
assignment to support your answer.
Refer to the "Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment Solutions," by Schoenbach
(2001), located on the Epidemilog.netwebsite, to check your answers to the assignment.
Describe the characteristics and design of a cohort study. Based on a disease or health
condition identified from the "2020 LHI Topics" on the Healthy People 2020 website, or an
article from the GCU library, discuss a real example of a cohort study (include the link to the
article in your post to the forum). Include the participants, exposures or treatment groups,
timeframe, and outcomes that were measured. Why is a cohort study described as an
"observational" study rather than an "experimental" study design?
In modern epidemiology, health outcomes are subject to various biases, including information, selection, and confounding bias. Compared to the other information and selection bias, confounding bias does not alter the crude association. It influences the interpretation of the observed association. According to Kyriacou & Lewis (2016), confounders are extraneous variables or factors that affect research outcomes. Ananth & Schisterman (2017) define confounding bias as a situation in which the measure of the risk of exposure is distorted by other factors that are more likely to influence the outcome under study. Therefore, it is always essential for individuals to pay special attention to confounding variables that influence the study’s outcomes.
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