presentation of Cardiovascular Disorders

Powerpoint presentation of Cardiovascular Disorders : Hypertension, Heart failure, dyslipidemia. Gastrointestinal disorders including GERD, Colorectal CA screening, Abdominal pain, Hepatitis.

Each disorder describing:

  1. sign and symptom
  2. Diagnostic testing
  3. Treatment plan
  4. Patient teaching
  5. differential diagnosis.

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There are various symptoms associated with hypertension, including nose bleeding, severe headaches, chest pain, vision problem,   irregular heartbeat, fatigue or confusion, and blood in the urine.

Diagnostic Testing

While examining whether the patient has hypertension, a physician may request a blood pressure measurement. The blood pressure measurement will show elevated BP. An elevated BP is a systolic pressure that ranges from 120 to 129 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of not above 80 mmHg

Treatment plan

The physician prescribes the medicine to the patient depending on their blood pressure measurements and their overall health. Some of the medicines prescribed include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, Angiotensin II receptors blockers (ARBs), among others. However, the patients are required to change their lifestyle, including nutrition and physical activities.

 Patient teaching plan

Patients are encouraged to consume a heart-healthy diet. They should try a dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, which encourages them to consume whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, and low-fat dairy foods. They need to consume a lot of potassium and engage in physical activities but with the physician’s guidance.

The hypertension differential diagnosis includes renal artery stenosis, hyperaldosteronism, chronic kidney disease, coarctation, and aortic valve disease.

 Heart Failure

The heart failure signs and symptoms include weakness or fatigue, rapid or irregular heartbeat, swelling in the legs, feet, or ankles,  reduced ability to work, swelling of the abdomen, nausea and lack of appetite, chest pain, and decreased alertness.

Diagnostic testing

A physician t may recommend blood testing where they evaluate whether the patients’ blood might indicate heart failure. Secondly, the physician may recommend an electrocardiogram test (ECG) which records the electoral activity in the patient’s heart. It helps in checking any problems in the heart.

Treatment plan

The treatment depends on the stage of the heart failure. For example, the treatment for Stage  A heart failure includes conducting regular exercise, like walking every day, intake of food with low sodium content, quit smoking or alcohol use. Also, the doctor may prescribe medication like beta-blockers angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) in case the patient has high blood pressure, diabetes, or coronary artery disease. Other treatments include a biventricular pacemaker, implantable cardiac defibrillator, heart surgery, heart transplant, or use of ventricular assist devices.


The patients eat plenty of fruits, whole grains, and vegetables. They should consume fat-free and low-fat dairy products, beans, fish, skinless poultry, and lean meats. Patients need to limit foods high in trans-fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Lastly, they need to take less than 6 grams of salt a day.

Some of the differential diagnoses for heart failure include extracardiac fluid overload, cardiac or respiratory etiologies, and a high output state.


Some of the signs and symptoms of dyslipidemia include dizziness, chest pain, trouble breathing, chest tightness, heart palpitations, cold sweats, heartburn, exhaustion, or swelling of feet and ankles.

Dyslipidemia is diagnosed by measuring serum lipids. Here, the physician may require the patient to conduct routine serum measurements, including total cholesterol HDL cholesterol, TGs, and LDL cholesterol.

Treatment plan

A pharmacological plan is the common treatment of dyslipidemia. The doctor is more likely to prescribe HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, bile acid-binding resins, nicotinic acid, and fabric acid derivatives. Other possible treatments include plasmapheresis, estrogen replacement therapy, or surgery in severe cases.

Pattie teaching plan

The patients should change their lifestyles to reduce the risk factors. As such, they should stop smoking, maintain a healthy weight, and exercise regularly. Also, they should get consumers low fat, high fiber diet, and low cholesterol.

Differential diagnosis

Conditions exhibiting similar signs and symptoms as dyslipidemia include obstructive liver disease, hypothyroidism, biliary obstruction, chronic renal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, obesity, anorexia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Colorectal CA

Colorectal cancer signs and symptoms include changes in the bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea, blood in the stool or rectal bleeding, persistent abdominal discomfort like gas, pain or cramps, a feeling that the bowel does not empty completely, unexplained weight loss, and weaknesses or fatigue.

Diagnostic testing

Some of the diagnostic tests include colposcopy, MRI testing, MSI or MMR testing, gene testing, and CT scan.

Treatment plan,

Colorectal CA can be treated using different methods depending on its stage. Some of the common treatment procedures include targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and a combination of surgery, targeted therapy, and chemotherapy. Palliative care is also provided to relieve the symptoms and side effects.

Patient Teaching

Individuals are encouraged to conduct regular screenings. The patients should eat a well-balanced diet, exercise regularly, cease smoking, reduce fat consumption, particularly animal fat, and take calcium supplements.

Differential diagnosis

Conditions exhibiting similar signs and symptoms as Colorectal CA include diverticular disease irritable bowel disease like Crowns disease.

Abdominal pain

Signs and symptoms include severe pain, weight loss, bloody stools, fever, persistent nausea and vomiting, swelling of the abdomen. The patients’ skin may become yellowish and exhibit severe tenderness when touched.

Diagnostic Testing

The physician may require some tests like blood tests, urine tests, ultrasound, MRI, Coloscopy, X-ray, and CT scan. Also, stool and saliva analysis is conducted.

Treatment plan

The doctor may prescribe some medications, including pain medications Tylenol, NSAIDS, Opiates, and disease medications like sulfasalazine for IBD.

Patient Teaching

The patients are encouraged to eat smaller amounts of food at each meal and not consumer fried or greasy foods, including high-fat food. They should not consume foods that are known for gas.

Differential diagnosis

Some of the conditions exhibiting similar signs and symptoms include diverticulitis, colitis, nephrolithiasis, and herpes zoster.


Some of the signs and symptoms of hepatitis include nausea, fever, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, vomiting, joint pain, light-colored stools, and jaundice.

Diagnostic testing

The doctor may conduct a blood test to confirm viral hepatitis and its severity. Other tests include imaging ultrasound, Liver Biopsy,   and MRI or Ct scans.

Treatment plan

Some of the antiviral medications for viral hepatitis include tenofovir, entecavir, adefovir, lamivudine, and telbivudine.

Patient Teaching

Patients with Hepatitis C virus infection are advised to cease alcohol use as it may accelerate the onset of end-stage liver disease or liver cirrhosis. They are educated on the risk for transmission to sex partners, although the possibility is low.

Differential diagnosis

Conditions that exhibit signs and symptoms such as hepatitis include ischemic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatotoxicity from toxins or drugs.

Answer preview

  • Change their lifestyles to reduce the risk factors
  • Stop smoking
  • Maintain a healthy weight, and exercise regularly
  • Consume low fat, high fiber diet, and low cholesterol

´Differential diagnosis

  • Obstructive liver disease, Hypothyroidism, biliary obstruction, chronic renal insufficiency
  • Nephrotic syndrome, obesity, anorexia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

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presentation of Cardiovascular Disorders