Health care financing issues

Submission Instructions:

Requirements: 500 words

Answer preview

Nurses’ involvement during decisions concerning reimbursement will ensure that nurses are aware of what is to be expected. This reduces the chances of resistance from the nurses, which could affect their service delivery and, eventually, productivity (Fox, 2016). To avoid such cases, the management should be keen on making sure the nurses are included during the decision-making of such reforms. The administration should ensure that nurses understand the reason for the change. When addressing financial issues, the management must explain to the nurses the reason behind such changes and how these changes will affect nurses. Lack of communication and understanding creates a barrier that prevents nurses from understanding the reimbursement issues and what they should expect (Fox, 2016). For example, if there is an increase in nurses’, it is important that nurses understand how the administration arrived at such increment. The same goes for a decrease in income.

[696 Words]

Health care financing issues

Nonprofit and for profit company

What are the most used and most important financial statements in a nonprofit and for profit company? Why, be very detailed.

Essential Activities:

  1. Review the Starbucks Annual Report.
  2. Watching the videos,The Key to Understanding Financial Statements and Financial statements, will assist you in writing this discussion forum.


  1. Please refer to the discussion forum rubric on the start here tab for this assignment.
  2. Initial discussion forum is due by Wednesday and responses to two of your classmates are due by Saturday.
  3. Each week to earn full points on the discussion forums, make sure to include outside sources to support your discussion.
  4. Ensure that you are citing and referencing your work in APA format.
Answer preview

Statements of cash flow are also vital for nonprofit organizations as they provide a snapshot of cash inflows and outflows over a given period (Zietlow et al., 2018). These statements allow pinpointing of sources and uses of cash. For-profit organizations, cash flow statements provide critical liquidity and cash management insights. Assessing the sources and use of cash is facilitated by categorizing cash flows into operating, investing, and financing activities. Thus, for-profit organizations can foster efficient working capital management, investment decisions, and strategic planning (Zietlow et al., 2018). For nonprofit Organizations, these statements aid nonprofits in managing their financial resources effectively to support their mission-driven activities. Therefore, they can ensure proper resource allocation and utilization by tracking cash flows from donations, grants, program activities, and operating expenses (Fraser et al., 2016). Moreover, cash flow statements aid in planning for future initiatives by guiding decision-making to ensure maximum social impact.


Nonprofit and for profit company

National Statistical Agencies

The assignment would require you to retrieve historical information, as far back as possible. This can be done either

using any alternative sources you may find (e.g. National Statistical Agencies).

You only need to answer the highlighted part.

Do not plagiarism.

Answer preview

China’s GDP was the sixth largest in the world in 2003 after countries like France, Japan, the United States, Germany, and Great Britain. The number of employed people in China increased significantly between 1990 and 2003 by about 96.83 million, which was a result of changes in the country’s employment structure (Cheng, 2019). The unemployment rate of China in 2003 was 4.3%, while that of the United States was 10.7% which was a decrease from 11% in 2002. The number of working people has been increasing by about 5.5 million people every year up to 2020 when COVID-19 distracted the trend. In the U.S., the unemployment rate has been, on average, at 5.74% since 1948 (Trading Economics, (2022). However, in 2020, the rate increased to 14.7% due to the COVID-19 outbreak.

[625 Words]

National Statistical Agencies

Financial objectives

Question Description: 2 Page Article Critique. APA format. Research peer-reviewed external sources for an article(s) that addresses different personality types or behaviors in the workplace and how to apply tactics for properly handling of each type. See attached instructions and follow all directions.

Unit VII Article Critique

  • Due: Tuesday, 02/01/2022 6:00 PM (CST)


As a leader, it is expected for you to be able to identify with the workers within the organization. This process can take place during basic observation, performance evaluations, attendance, interaction with others, and basic characteristics or behaviors. The leader must identify different personality types or behaviors and apply the suggested tactics for properly handling each type.


Research peer-reviewed external sources for an article(s) that addresses different personality types or behaviors in the workplace and how to apply tactics for properly handling of each type.


Provide your opinion on the article as it applies to the following questions:


Your article critique should be at least two pages in content length, including an introduction, a body of supportive material (paragraphs), and a conclusion. Be sure to include a title page and a reference page and follow all other APA formatting requirements. The title page and reference page do not count toward the total page requirement.

Answer preview

A clash of personalities is not a far-fetched fear within the corporate realm, as people have unique experiences and preferences (Batista & Reio Jr, 2019). Therefore, an organization is better served to take the necessary steps to create a conducive environment for a collaborative effort. Beyond taking broad actions, it is essential to understand that personality traits may play a big hand in workplace conflicts. Using this information, employers can enforce meticulous recruitment and selection processes to bring people who fit into the organizational culture. In the same vein, employees can use this information to assess themselves and develop a better personality that helps them to correlate well with others.

[765 Words]


Financial objectives

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

1. How attractive was the taxi industry before Uber and other ride-hailing players entered the market? (Hint: Use Porter’s five force model to answer this question)

Requirements: 1.5 page

Answer preview

considering that drivers in the taxi industry had an average competition base due to the hire-for services car providers, mainly in the corporate world. According to Wu (2017), corporate clients decided on luxury limousines, chartered services, and transit for healthcare items. However, the power of suppliers was high due to the high prices for maintenance and high costs of the medallions for the independent and corporate fleets.

On average, service providers in the taxi industry had significant protections which prevented them from experiencing intense competition from new entrants, substitutes, buyers, and competitors. Despite having licensure restrictions, the returns on investments on the medallions were high for the medallion owners.

[527 Words]

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics

Some people have argued that unions are “unnecessary.” Are they? If unions are unnecessary, then who will insure that workers’ rights and interests are considered? How? If unions are necessary, then why are the alternatives to unions inadequate?

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

Write between 750 – 1,250 words (approximately 3 – 5 pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style.

Use font size 12 and 1” margins.

Include cover page and reference page.

Use an appropriate number of references to support your position, and defend your arguments. The following are examples of primary and secondary sources that may be used, and non-credible and opinion based sources that may not be used.

1.Primary sources such as government websites (United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Census Bureau, The World Bank, etc.), peer reviewed and scholarly journals in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library) and Google Scholar.

2.Secondary and credible sources such as, CNN Money, The Wall Street Journal, trade journals, and publications in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library).

3.Non-credible and opinion based sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. should not be used.

Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased statements, information, etc.) in the paper and list each source on a reference page using APA style.

Requirements: 750-1250

Answer preview

These alternative measures that have replaced the unions’ roles are ineffective and inadequate in meeting the demands of the employees. For instance, the HR department only works in the jurisdiction of a particular company, implying they can only exercise their power in the company’s environment. Therefore, they cannot address other factors affecting their employees, such as high taxation and pension schemes (Machin & Wood, 2015). Moreover, they do not have the authority and mandate to alter government interventions that, at times, maybe unfavorable to their employees. On the other hand, federal and government rules and regulations on labor take time to formulate and require a lot of consent before they are enacted. Therefore, it takes time for the employees’ demands to be met, unlike unions that have measures such as strikes, go-slows, and collective bargaining used to make their demands known.

[930 Words]


United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics

Financial markets

All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).



Q1. “The more risk-averse people are, the more likely they are to diversify.” Is this statement true, false, or uncertain? Explain your answer.

Q2. Define the concept of Standard Deviation and how to help to evaluate different investment choices?

Q3. Explain the relation between Interest rate and Bonds quantity level?

Q4. Do credit rating agencies do a good job at assessing credit risk?

Q5. Emphasise fundamentals of financial institutions within financial markets? Outline the role of financial intermediates and how important to financial systems?

Q6. Why do financial markets exist? How would the economy function without them? What are the potential disadvantages of financial intermediaries? Discuss

Answer preview

Financial markets are essential in facilitating the production of goods and services and creating capital through financial activities such as investment and saving(Amidu & Issahaku, 2018). In economies with poorly developed financial markets, there is a reduced flow of income, and it isn’t easy to generate capital. Moreover, when the rate of savings is low, leading to decreased investments. Financial intermediaries often increase the fees charged for their services, lowering the possible return on investment.

[671 Words]


Financial markets

Financial risks

Assessment Description

Recent turmoil in the capital markets underscored for hospital leaders the negative impact of various liability-side risks. What are several types of financial risks that a health care organization could take in the course of operations? Cite at least two outside resources.

Requirements: 200 words

Essentials of Health Care Finance

Cleverley, W. O., & Cleverley, J. O. (2018). Essentials of health care finance (8th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9781284094633

Answer preview

, The patient files a lawsuit, leading to substantial lawsuit costs for the health facility (Byrd et al., 2013). Further, liquidity risks are prevalent if the health facility fails to meet the short-term obligations for its debt. The organization may fail to convert an asset to cash due to the inefficiencies in the market. Notably, the covid-19 pandemic has affected the market with isolation and stay-at-home measures. Hence, the inability to adapt to the changes progressively has presented challenges for businesses to stand out in the market.

[309 Words]

Financial risks

Financial markets

In the Learning Activity “Critical Areas of Financial Analysis” you learned how the opinions of other analysts are a way for managers to make decisions. Examine Table 1.3 (Bond Ratings) carefully and understand the different classifications of bonds by the different analysts. Then, conduct research and find an organization that offers a bond with a “Very High Quality” rating and one that offers bond with a “Very Poor” rating as stated in the table. Provide the link to the financials and examine them. List at least three financial factors for each organization that you feel are the reasons for the analyst ratings. Do you agree with the analyst ratings? Why or not? Would you personally invest in the organization by buying the bonds? Why or why not?

Critical Areas of Financial Analysis


After reading this section, list the various elements of financial analysis and, particularly, the areas (in addition to accounting data) a financial investor/analyst should focus on when examining financial data. Why should analysts look beyond the numbers presented in financial statements? Where should analysts look for additional sources of information about a company?

Record your responses in your Learning Journal.

Market Data

© Robert Churchill/iStock/Thinkstock

Another important information source is market data. As the name implies, market data are the data generated in a marketplace. We discuss two types: stock market performance (measured by stock returns) and product market performance (measured by market share). Because it is generated by millions of market participants, market-based data are less subject to manipulation (window dressing) by management than accounting data. Although it has been done, managers have a more difficult time misleading millions of investors in the stock market or millions of consumers in product markets.

Stock Returns

A corporation’s ultimate objective is to maximize shareholder wealth. This goal leads us directly to the necessity of evaluating share price changes or stock returns, as stock returns measure changes in shareholder wealth. Returns are available in many formats. The Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) tapes, developed by the University of Chicago, offer users a data set of daily security returns decades long, covering thousands of publicly traded firms. Returns may also be calculated by gathering share price and dividend information from sources such as Yahoo! and Google.

Stock prices and returns are also useful to the analyst because they are forward-looking, and implicitly consider risk. Recall that two shortcomings of accounting statements are their historical nature and the fact that they do not incorporate risk.

Stock prices are forward-looking because they include the present value of future expected dividends. Investors’ required return, r, is dependent on the riskiness of the firm’s future cash flows. Therefore, when today’s price changes, it is responding to changes in expected return requirements (which can be caused by a perceived change in risk) and to changes in expected dividends.

Using stock returns has a shortcoming as well. We may observe a decline in share price, signaling poor performance, but it is impossible to know why the price declined without more information. Did price decline because the overall market declined? If so, this is outside the firm’s ability to control. Or was the decline a signal of lower expected dividends and/or higher risk?

You can see, at this point, that in financial analysis, no single source of information will provide you with all the pieces to the puzzle, yet each makes a contribution toward understanding the larger picture.

Market Share

The financial balance sheet model of the corporation identifies two markets critical to the success of a business. Financial markets are the source of the external capital the corporation needs in order to fund its investment projects. Stock returns measure the success of the firm in financial markets. Product and service markets are the arenas in which the firm’s products compete, and these markets provide the cash that flows back to claimants. Ultimately, the risks and returns to which claimants are exposed are determined by the success or failure of the firm’s output in the product market. One method of gauging this success is through the calculation of a product’s market share. Here the demand for the product is reflected, and product pricing strategies, product differentiation, quality, reliability, service, delivery, brand-name recognition, and other attributes are collectively judged by consumers in comparison to competing products of other firms.

Market share is calculated by dividing the firm’s product sales by the total sales of products perceived to be similar and competing for the same consumer spending. A declining market share indicates that competitors are taking business away from the firm. Lower profits may result if sales decline, if prices are lowered in order to recapture market share, or if marketing expenses increase to promote greater demand.

Hand in hand with market share information is the size of the market. If, over time, total industry sales within a market are flat or trending downward, the company must implement a strategy that addresses the problem. Similarly, a growing market calls for a plan to meet potentially high growth. Firms in shrinking markets are challenged to gain a greater share in a smaller market. Such firms may attempt to develop new products that capitalize on company strengths to replace current products that may be headed toward obsolescence. A good example is horse-drawn carriage manufacturers at the turn of the century; when seeing demand for carriages decline, management turned to automobile body manufacturing. IBM, once the most well known of all computer manufacturers, switched strategic direction from manufacturing computer hardware to information services because they saw computers becoming a commodity-like product with wafer-thin product margins.

Market size and share information are available from several sources. Government and industry publications are widely available, as well as information services such as Compustat and Standard & Poor’s. The potential size of a market, for example, may be determined using the Census of Manufacturers, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, or a private source such as the “Survey of Buying Power,” published in Sales and Marketing Management.

Opinions of Other Analysts

Many large firms are closely followed by securities analysts. In fact, an industry exists whose product is the publication of analysts’ opinions and forecasts of firm performance. The best known of these are Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s, Fitch, Morningstar, and Value Line. Almost any library carries one or more of these companies’ publications. Another source is brokerage firms, which often make their analysts’ reports available to investors.

Moody’s, Fitch, and Standard & Poor’s are best known as bond-rating agencies. Ratings are based on the agency’s opinion of the likelihood that a bond will default, and on the protection afforded the claimant by the bond contract in the event that default does occur. Table 1.3 shows the major rating categories used by Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s, along with their meanings. Naturally, the higher the rating, the lower investors’ required return on the bonds will be and the lower the cost of debt for the company. AAA or Aaa bonds, for example, will have lower yields to maturity than BB or Ba bonds.

Table 1.3 Bond Ratings
Very High Quality High Quality Speculative Very Poor
Standard & Poor’s AAA AA A BBB BB B CCC D
Moody’s Aaa Aa A Baa Ba B Caa C

Value Line Investment Survey analyzes about 1,700 stocks. Equities are rated for future price appreciation potential (timeliness) and relative riskiness (safety), and Value Line provides explicit estimates of future dividends, dividend growth, sales, and earnings, among other forecasts. Stocks are categorized by industry, and the publication includes some discussion of each firm’s prospects and challenges, as well as a brief industry analysis. Value Line Investment Survey also provides historical data and calculates several ratios. This publication can be found in many libraries, and you can subscribe to Value Line’s publications online, as you can for Morningstar, which provides some of the same types of information as Value Line but is also well known for its analysis of mutual funds.

We must keep in mind that if markets are efficient, the information included in reports such as Moody’s or Value Line’s is already included in the market price of the firm’s bonds and stock. Additionally, these ratings and opinions represent those of only one or a small handful of analysts. However, when we analyze the financial performance of a firm, these sources can provide useful data about the company in question and the industry of interest. Moreover, opinions of other analysts serve as a benchmark with which our own conclusions may be compared. To be sure, management of companies whose securities are followed by Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s, or Value Line pay attention to the widely read opinions of their companies. In addition to these major sources of information, other rating agencies specialize in particular industries. For example, A. M. Best ranks the financial safety of insurance companies. Major brokerage houses produce company and industry reports that include analysts’ forecasts and recommendations.

Comparative Data

Suppose your employer’s sales increased 10% last year. Is this unexpectedly high or disappointing? To answer that question you must compare the result to (1) historical results, (2) your competitors’ results, and (3) your firm’s targeted sales. Historical results are readily available in prior years’ annual reports. In fact, annual reports include data from several years for just this purpose. If, in the last five years, sales had increased by a minimum of 15% per year, then a 10% increase for this year might be disappointing. On the other hand, if 10% were the largest increase in a decade, it might indicate outstanding performance. The historical record provides the analyst with valuable clues to answer this type of question.

Look for comparable firms that are competitors in the same product market. Ideally, comparables would be about the same size and have the same product mix as the firm you are analyzing. If comparable firms had increases that averaged 20%, your firm’s 10% increase may look rather dismal. Of course, if comparables showed no sales growth, then your firm might look like a superstar.

You may have difficulty locating comparables. Diversified firms may not fit neatly into an industry classification. You may think, for example, that Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are natural comparables, but if you investigate, you will find that PepsiCo owns Frito-Lay and other snack food companies. Surprisingly, it is snack foods that generate most of PepsiCo’s sales and profits. Thus, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are not as comparable after all.

For firms that do fit into an industry classification, there are publications that produce industry average ratios for comparison purposes. Among the most widely available industry averages are those published by Dun & Bradstreet, Robert Morris Associates, and the annual surveys appearing in Forbes and Business Week. Value Line, as previously mentioned, classifies firms by industry and can be another useful source for data on comparables.

The Media

When you analyze quantitative data like ratios and growth rates, you may be tempted to evaluate performance using numbers alone. This level of analysis does not involve an understanding of the cause of performance. For instance, concluding that share price declined because earnings were lower is not very useful. If we take the quantitative analysis a step further and discover that earnings were lower because sales were down, then we have added to our knowledge but have not really reached the level of understanding that is useful for decision making. What a manager or a claimant needs to know is why sales were down. Did the company lose market share because a competitor introduced a superior product? Did competitors lower their prices? Were sales down because the overall market shrank? Was there a recession last year that caused consumers to cut back their overall spending? Maybe adverse press caused the product’s sales to decline. Sales can also decline because of internal problems at the company. A strike may have hurt production or a key salesperson may have retired. There are a myriad of possibilities, and it is the analyst’s job to find the correct one. Ratios are useful because they raise red flags, causing analysts to focus their attention in the right places.

The point is that an analyst must look beyond the numbers. We have already mentioned two sources of information that are not quantitative in nature: annual reports and published analysts’ opinions such as those from Value Line. The press offers a wealth of similar information. The Wall Street Journal, Barron’s, Financial Times, Forbes, and Fortune are just a few of the publications devoted to business and economics.

The Internet offers a wealth of information. Virtually all of the information sources listed here, from the Wall Street Journal to Robert Morris Associates, maintain their own websites. You can find a corporation’s website by using a search engine. You can access a corporation’s financial statements by looking at their Securities and Exchange Commission filings—annual reports, proxy statements, and 10-Ks. The SEC makes these available on its EDGAR database. General news about companies is provided online by television networks such as ABC, CNN Money, and CBS, and by newspapers such as the New York Times. Business-specific news sources include Bloomberg, CNBC, PBS’s Nightly Business Report, and the British Financial Times, which is similar to the Wall Street Journal but with a more international perspective. Securities exchanges that have websites include the NYSE and NASDAQ.

Whenever you gather information from the Internet, be cautious. Anyone can create a website and say what they please, so stick with known, reliable site sponsors such as major newspapers, magazines, universities, exchanges, and the government. Beware of pundits, bloggers, and other self-proclaimed experts who hype a stock to increase price before dumping the stock (selling it for a quick profit). Some websites may require a subscription or fee to access their service. Often such sites allow limited access to the site or a free trial subscription before they require payment.

Note. Adapted from “Accounting Statements,” by Hickman, Finance, Chapter 11, Section 2. Copyright Flat World Knowledge, Inc.

-Post adds value by raising novel points or providing new perspectives.

-Post is concise and clearly written in an academic tone; Sentences are complete; spelling, grammar and punctuation are correct.

Requirements: More than 15 characters, Less than 4000 characters

Answer preview

I think the main cross-cutting factors behind the bond ratings are the organization’s balance sheet, the likelihood of attaining profitability, and competition in their industry. I agree with Google’s ratings because it is a dominant force in its field. Technology’s significance in the modern era means that profitability will increase as the company consolidates its market share. I would buy bonds from an organization ranked high quality because I stand high chances of getting dividends and reduced chances of losing my money altogether. I would not invest in the bonds of a poorly rated company because there is a very high risk of losing everything when I could make a safer investment elsewhere.

[421 Words]

Financial markets

Statement of cash flows

In the video in the Learning Activity “Understanding the Statement of Cash Flows” Tony Bell mentions an easy way to determine whether the indirect or direct method is used in developing the Statement of Cash Flows. What does he say this is? Conduct your own research and list two companies that use either the indirect method or the direct method. Provide a link to each company’s Statement of Cash Flows, and list two advantages for the method that you prefer.

Understanding the Statement of Cash Flows


In this video, Tony Bell walks through an analysis of the statement of cash flows. Reference his earlier videos for a review of construction of the statement of cash flows (the direct versus indirect method). Take notes in your Learning Journal as you watch and discuss any questions related to this activity in Social Learning.


-Post adds value by raising novel points or providing new perspectives.

-Post is concise and clearly written in an academic tone; Sentences are complete; spelling, grammar and punctuation are correct.

Requirements: More than 15 Character, Less than 4000 Characters

Answer preview

An organization that uses the direct method is the United Way of Saskatoon and Area, where it begins by recording net revenue. Apple Inc is an excellent example of a company using an indirect cash flow. In this method, Apple Inc.  Presents operating cash flows as a reconciliation of the cash flow or profits. The company begins with computing the operating cash, where it deducts investing cash flows and financing cash flows.

In my case, I would prefer the direct method over the indirect cash flow method. One advantage associated with the indirect is simple to use. It improves the prediction ability of the organization’s future operating cash flows. In conclusion, the cash flow statement includes all the cash sales and expenses paid in cash. In short, the cash flow statement is mainly used to measure how well an organization can generate cash to fund its operating expenses and pay a debt obligation.

[531 Words]

Statement of cash flows