Religious symbolism

Summary Part 1


Features of secular state are:

  • it does not have any official religion
  • it neither encourages nor discourages the practice of any religion
  • all citizens are free to propagate, profess or practice their own religion
  • no discrimination is made among citizens on the basis of religion

A secular state would be one that has no religious symbolism attached to its government or institutions. It would have no laws that favor religion. The system of government, both in its theory and its practice would allow all citizens to participate equally in government or choosing representatives to government regardless of whether they were theist of atheist. Decisions would be made on the basis that they did not favor religions but promoted the right to freedom of religion and freedom from religion equally.

For this summary, let us bring into conversation our reading from the assigned article and the following quotes:

“Religion has actually convinced people that there’s an invisible man living in the sky who watches everything you do, every minute of every day. And the invisible man has a special list of ten things he does not want you to do. And if you do any of these ten things, he has a special place, full of fire and smoke and burning and torture and anguish, where he will send you to live and suffer and burn and choke and scream and cry forever and ever ’til the end of time! But He loves you. He loves you, and He needs money! He always needs money! He’s all-powerful, all-perfect, all-knowing, and all-wise, somehow just can’t handle money!”
– George Carlin, American stand-up comedian, actor, author, and social critic

I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with senses, reason, and intellect has intended us to forego their use.” (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
– Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

With or without religion, you would have good people doing good things and evil people doing evil things. But for good people to do evil things, that takes religion.” (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
– Steven Weinberg, American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

“There was a time when religion ruled the world. It is known as the Dark Ages.” (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
– Ruth Hurmence Green, American author (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

“I do not believe all religions lead to God because no religion leads to God. Religion does not lead people to God any more than cups quench your thirst.”
– Bruxy Cavey, Canadian actor and author

“Tell a devout Christian that his wife is cheating on him, or that frozen yogurt can make a man invisible, and he is likely to require as much evidence as anyone else, and to be persuaded only to the extent that you give it. Tell him that the book he keeps by his bed was written by an invisible deity who will punish him with fire for eternity if he fails to accept its every incredible claim about the universe, and he seems to require no evidence whatsoever.”
– Sam Harris, American author, neuroscientist, philosopher, and podcast host

Think about our world society at-large, then bringing the above quotes and the other readings assigned for this week into conversation with one another respond to the following questions:

  • In your opinion, what role does religion play across cultures in the world today, and how could secularization disrupt this order? Choose from Judaism, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, or Islam as points of reference (you can use Google News to access information useful for this task).
  • Which above quote do you connect with the most, and which one do you disagree with, and why?
  • If there was one thing you could change about how religion impacts society, thinking of the ideologies proposed by secularization, what would that be? Why?

Summary Part 2

Read this short article:…

Secularization and Pluralism are hot-topics in the universe of Religious Studies discourse, and academia as a whole. From a Religious Studies perspective, and in laypersons terms, they are best defined as follows:

Secularization: the process of either influencing people who were strictly religious or conservative of a certain cultural practice or disciples of certain ethical/ philosophical principals, to drop or relax their practices and adopt more liberal and popular culture; or as a society or institution relaxing set principals that forced members to adhere to strict code of conduct and setting them free to adopt liberal and popular practices of their choice. Secularism is a principle that involves two basic propositions. The first is the strict separation of the state from religious institutions. The second is that people of different religions and beliefs are equal before the law.

  • In true secularism, religions have to respect the laws of state, one common law for all religions (in marriage, divorce, etc.)
  • It is the concept that a society should be built, governed and operated without interference of personal beliefs, traditions and opinions based on such.
  • Secularism is an idea centered on separation of religion from worldly affairs.

Pluralism: a pluralist society connotes a nation/society marked by the absence of discrimination/bigotry of any sorts, (particularly along religious and ethnic lines). As the word pluralist itself suggests “numerous” – i.e. existence and acceptance of diverse opinions, beliefs and principles – and refers to the environment which is not only tolerant of all the elements residing in it but also an environment of harmony whereby people belonging to distinct cultural and ethnic backgrounds do not have a blinkered attitude towards the practices and cultures of other groups.

  • Pluralism is a view based on the concept that all religions are paths to truth, and reality, thus adherents of all existent religions will reach to salvation and prosperity.
  • Pluralism is acknowledging the fact that multiple power groups should exist and compete in a free and open marketplace of ideas, from which policies and law are generated to govern the society.
  • It is a form of society in which minorities maintain their independent cultural traditions without any restrictions.
  • Simply stated, it is a concept that supports the idea that people with disagreeing beliefs live in the same society peacefully without disbanding their beliefs.

Bringing into conversation the readings for the week, to include the assigned article, and the above passage, what religious milieu would you prefer to live in, a secular one, or one that is pluralistic? Explain your response thoroughly and thoughtfully.

Layout and Design:

Writing 200 words for each Summary Part 1 & 2, and complying fully with the following criteria makes for a successful assignment:

  • Typed in Times New Roman in a 12pt font
  • double-spaced
  • numbered pages
  • appropriate heading (name, class, date, professor’s name, topic)
  • creative title (use your imagination and create a cool title)
  • use of literature and citations if applicable
  • your grade will reflect grammatical inaccuracies in your work.

Answer preview

A pluralistic society appeals to me more than one based upon secularistic ideals. One of the reasons pluralism appeals to me is that it recognizes that people are different and ascribe to different cultures and ways of thinking (Ronald, 2011). As such, people should find a way of co-existing with each other irrespective of their differences. We live in a diverse society characterized by people having different cultures, political opinions, and religious views. The government should strive to maintain neutrality, only stepping in during circumstances that require their intervention, which should be very minimal.

[708 Words]

Religious symbolism

Personal Growth

The assignment is a personal growth exercise involves interviewing a person whom you perceive as very different from you in terms of your cultural and social identities. This person should be engaged in a career and have at least ten years of full-time work experience.

You must incorporate the course concepts into your a written essay response. Describe your experience as follows:

  1. What are their social identities? How are they similar or dissimilar to your identities?
  2. What are kind of stereotypes does this person encounter? What is the accuracy of those stereotypes?
  3. What was it like growing up as a member of these particular groups? What was their greatest challenge then and now?
  4. Have they ever experienced discrimination at work or in other ways?
  5. How do their group memberships influence their current work environment or prior career choices?
  6. What have you learned from the interviewing experience that you could apply to your current or past work situations?

Your written work must be clear and well organized. In addition, your assignment must be at least 2 pages typed, double-spaced throughout with reasonable fonts and margins.

Hello, attached is the book pdf copy in case is needed. Thank you

Answer preview

Ibrahim admits to experiencing discrimination, especially at work. In his first job interview, some of the questions asked were highly discriminative. He had to answer questions such as whether he has been convicted of crimes such as terrorism. In his current job, during lunch hour breaks, he sometimes overhears coworkers claiming they are scared he might bomb the building and kill everyone. Offensive remarks are a form of harassment in the workplace, which creates a hostile environment for the victim (Bell, 2013). Ibrahim’s discrimination is also present in his personal life, whereby people call him weird names and give him long gazes to watch his every move, especially in crowded areas such as the mall.

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Personal Growth

Religious ritual

1. Choose a religious ritual and the religion it is practiced in that seems bizarre to some and discuss about it.

2. Discuss the significance of certain religious behaviors in encouraging adherence to religious norms.

3. Compare it to Judeo-Christian religious beliefs or practices.

4. Please include a page of bibliography in MLA format.

5. Must be at least 2 pages long.


lease let me know once you’ve decided on which religion and religious ritual to do a research on.

Answer preview

There are distinct similarities and differences between the two religions. Both encourage right living and purity through abstinence from harmful behaviors. They both recognize the existence of a supreme being that helps humans in their suffering. Buddhism does not have one supreme being but many deities that play different but crucial roles in human wellbeing. Buddhism rejects the notion of a single creator God who is solely responsible for the world’s values, but Christianity is monotheistic. Buddhism focuses on the life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, also known as Buddha, who was enlightened or awakened. At the same time, Judeo-Christianity is centered around Moses’s laws for the Jewish culture and the teachings of Jesus for the Christians. According to Jeong-Kyu, Christian’s view of death is divided into the somatic first death and the pneumatic second death, while Buddhism views death as a rebirth determined by karma (5). The central imagery in Buddhism is the death of Gautama at a good old age, while that of Christianity is the crucifixion of Jesus on the cross.

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Religious ritual

Religion in america

Please write a 2 page paper talking about religion in america

How does religion in America relate to the covid pandemic?

Answer preview

The constitutional reform of 1791 favored religion even better. That is, the first amendment prohibited Congress from making laws that could interfere with religious practices (Lund, 2017). The reform separated the religion from state and federal government practices. It also ended the traditional religious discriminations, where someone could be prosecuted by refusing to abide by certain religious beliefs. Today, everyone in America has the right to participate in any religious culture. Concerning the struggles of traditional Christians, such as Puritans, it is true that religion has been fighting for freedom from political influence. Religious freedom is present in America today, and American religion is well established.

[698 Words]

Religion in america

Ethnicity and religion

Select one idea of particular interest or relevance to you that you encountered in your reading about “Ethnicity and religion” or a hands-on class experience

Read these articles , watch these videos, do some reseaches and answer these 4 questions ( it is not a paper so number each questions and answer them )


1. Select one idea of particular interest or relevance to you that you encountered in your reading about Ethnicity and religion or a hands-on class experience. Identify the idea or issue for others in your message. What is it? Why did it strike you as interesting or important? Please provide a full and reflective description of the issue or idea. [Present the idea in your own words.]

2. Expand on this issue by considering these two questions:

a. How does this issue apply to your major? (my major is pharmacy)

b. What are the implications of this issue for your specific area of interest?


1- write a paragraph or two on your reflections on the two videos you chose (you have to pick two of these videos or article about ethnicity and religion). (one or two paragraph for each videos)


2 .

A student in an undergraduate sociology course complains to the department chair that he is not doing well in the course because he is unable to understand the professor’s English. The professor, a young untenured woman from Korea, has demonstrated her proficiency with the English language on several measures, scoring high on standardized tests and publishing in well regarded US journals.

Who should “own” this problem?


NB: include reference and numerote each question before answer them. part A has 2 questions (1 and 2) and part B has 2 questions ( 1 and 2)


it is not a paper just number each question and answer them. it is 4 questions total part A has 2 questions 1 and 2 (2a and 2b) . and part B also has two questions

Answer preview

Gandhi says that the use of violence cannot illustrate truth, and that violence cannot be opposed by brutality ( I agree with Gandhi’s argument because a fight against the violation of human rights cannot be won using disorder. Being able to express ideas in a non-violent way to the concerned parties shows that people are strong enough and that they can stand against vices in society. When people hold peaceful demonstrations, they are given attention by the people they address. During peaceful protests, there is no chaos, which makes the authority to pay attention to grievances, instead of using force. As a result, transforming conditions are achieved.

[807 Words]

Ethnicity and religion

Beowulf poet present Beowulf as a character

the article is posted below

discuss what the lines mean journal entry based

Each answer MUST have at least two cited examples in MLA FORMAT from the text to support your answer.

  1. How does the Beowulf poet present Beowulf as a character? What are his characteristics–break it down?
  2. How do the characters of Hrothgar and Beowulf see their relationship to God (or the gods)?Is there a difference in perpsective?
  3. Why would a Christian author write a poem about a pagan hero? (This does not require a citation. Tell me how you feel from what you have read so far.”
  4. Does the heroic code expressed in Beowulf conflict with a Christian sensibility? And if so, in what ways? Use at least two examples.

Answer preview

From what I have read, I feel that the Christian author of the poem acknowledges that there were diverse beliefs, and he wanted to caption the events that were taking place at the time. Therefore, the inclusion of a pagan hero in the poem creates some realistic aspects of other religious beliefs. Even in the Bible, the mentioning of idols and gods did not make the authors less Christian.

  1. Does the heroic code expressed in Beowulf conflict with a Christian sensibility? And if so, in what ways? Use at least two examples.

Although Beowulf portrays a heroic code, there are conflicting elements with a Christian sensibility. For instance, in Heaney (line 963-964), Beowulf longed to kill Grendel, where he says that he planned to pin the monster down and wrestle him to death. To be a hero, Beowulf had to defeat Grendel and kill him; however, Christian teachings in Exodus 20:13 are against murder. Further, Heaney (line 812) shows that Beowulf longed for the glory to win to prove his courage. The hero was eyeing the earthly pleasure of being glorified by men; however, Christian teachings in Matthew 6:19-20 do not endorse worldly fulfillments.

[435 Words]

Beowulf poet present Beowulf as a character

Unitarian Universalism

to choose a denomination unfamiliar to you, and begin to curate a digital archive on this denomination. This week, I want you to choose the denomination you want to study (from the list I provide in the syllabus, or anotherdenomination – butpleasecheck with mefirstifyouchoose a denominationnot on the list). In 300-500 words, tell me why do youwant to study this particular denomination? What is it that seems interesting to you? What do you hope to learn?

Dominations to choose from:

Southern Baptists

African American Evangelical

Unitarian Universalist

United Church

Episcopalian Church

Greek Orthodox




FourSquare Church

Assemblies ofGod

Evangelical Christianity in United States

Seventh Day Adventist

Church ofLatter-Day Saints (Mormon)

Holiness Churches

Lutheran Church

Answer preview

I find their beliefs interesting in the way they accommodate inclusivity. Beliefs of different unitarian universalists vary widely, including agnosticism, atheism, pantheism, deism, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism, humanism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Neopaganism (Frevert, 2009). As evident from the varying beliefs, unitarian universalism is a liberal denomination that accommodates people with distinctive beliefs, unified by the tradition of great love. Most interestingly, unitary universalists’ association with politics supports liberal transformation such as LGBT movements, civil rights movement, social justice, and the well-known feminist movement.

[326 Words]

Unitarian Universalism

African Culture

Your cultural journal is a place for reflection and for connecting the topics we learn about in class with assigned activities, your experiences and observations.

Unit 1 is designed to increase your:

  1. Understanding of terms (culture, nationality, race and ethnicity) and frameworks (the cultural context of behavior; week 1).
  2. Understanding of etics and emics and cultural worldviews, in particular horizontal and vertical forms of individualism and collectivism (week 2).
  3. Understanding of enculturation and acculturation, in particular acculturation agents and strautegies (week 3).

Cultural Journal #1:

Please respond to the following prompt:

  • Reflect on your culture. In this reflection, incorporate topics and terminology we have covered in unit 1 (e.g., broad and narrow definitions of culture, nationality, race, ethnicity, biopsychosocial model, etics, emics, individualism, collectivism, enculturation, acculturation, enculturation/acculturation agents, acculturation strategies).

Your assignment should be 300 words in length. You must use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. Remember that the purpose of this assignment is for you to reflect on the qestions that are posed and relate your reflections to topics that we cover in class. The goal is reflection and course connection. Please be thoughtful in your responses.

Assessment Criteria: Your journal will be graded based on being turned in on time, length, writing quality, conceptual accuracy and course connections. Points will be deducted:

  • for journals that do not meet the length requirement (your maximum score will be based on the number of words you write).
  • (one point) for every two writing errors.
  • for content that is conceptually or factually inaccurate.
  • if there are no course connections.

Answer preview

Religion provides guidance and a framework for the appropriate ways of thinking and behaving, which are passed from elders to the young generation through stories, bible readings, and church teachings. Most Africans are Christians and Muslims. In the ancestral state, people used to worship in shrines and offer sacrifices, but as the world is changing, most people worship in churches. At a young age, people are taught the right morals of dressing, talking, and acting. For example, in African culture, it is believed that, as a woman, you are not supposed to walk around wearing a short dress as it symbolizes a lack of morals and respect.

[403 Words]


African Culture

The elements of moral philosophy

Book: Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education.

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 3, 4
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 2 scholarly sources (in addition to the textbook


Review the following ethical dilemmas:

  1. John Doe has decided to clone himself. He is sterile. He cannot find anyone to marry him. He wishes to have children. He knows that he will not be able to love a child that is adopted or not connected directly to him biologically. He will be making use of a new procedure that involves taking his skin cells to produce a twin. The twin starts out as an embryo and grows into a child. The child in this case will have the same genetic information as John Doe. John Doe and his child will be twins.
  2. Jane Doe is eighteen. For as long as she can remember she has been sexually attracted to other females. Her parents belong to a religion that has a religious text stating that God forbids one to be a lesbian. This religion goes on further to say that lesbians will be punished in the afterlife. Jane Doe is debating whether she should tell her parents about her sexual attraction. She has not yet decided if she should come out to her parents and live as a lesbian now that she is a legal adult.
  3. Joe and Mary are a couple. Before becoming sterile, they had a child. This child died of a rare disease. Joe and Mary miss their child terribly. They have heard that there is a new IVF procedure that can ensure that they can have another child. However, their religion forbids using IVF.
    Use the resources assigned for this week and additional research,

Select two of the situations above and then address 2 of the following:

  1. What is the relation between ethics and religion? Formulate and investigate the relation.
  2. For each case, determine the ethical path of conduct. Then, determine what paths of conduct would be unethical
  3. For each case, what would an emotivism say to appraise what you determine is the ethical form of conduct?
  4. For each case, would a natural law ethicist agree with what you say is the ethical form of conduct? Why or why not?
  5. Articulate, explain, and evaluate in each case an approach that makes use of divine command ethics.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources)

Requirements: A thorough submission that touches all the points of the assignment.

Answer preview

According to the natural law, humans have an intrinsic sense in determining what is wrong or right, and these senses are the ones that govern their behaviors and reasoning without considering customs or beliefs but human nature (Tollefsen, 2020.) From our first case, it would be unethical for John Doe to clone a child from his skin since, according to human nature, it takes two genders, a man, and a woman, to make a child. In the case of Jane Doe, it is also unethical to involve in homosexuality. The law of human nature is to the individual of the opposite sex rather than individuals of the same sex. For Joe and Mary, it would be ethical to undergo the IVF procedure if that was their only chance of siring a child. It is the law of nature for two people of a different gender to produce offsprings.

[712 Words]

The elements of moral philosophy

Egyptian Culture

Question Description: Research Paper Instructions
In this paper you will discuss various elements of a pre-approved cultural study.
Research Paper Content:
Begin with an introduction with a thesis statement.
Provide a brief history of your culture.
Explain how your chosen culture is represented in the United States.
Discuss whether your culture individualistic or collectivistic. Provide at least one example.
Detail some of the artistic (art, music, architecture, dance) contributions of your culture.
Explain some of the values of your culture. Provide at least three examples.
Discuss your culture’s religion(s). Include name and basic belief system of at least one of the major faiths.
Detail some of the sex and gender role differences in your culture (provide at least three examples)
Discuss what we would need to know to acculturate into your culture. (If a past one, what would we need to do for preparing for our time machine to fit in). Provide at least one concrete suggestion.
End with the conclusion.
Specific Paper Requirements:
Length of paper four to six pages in length (Times New Roman; One inch margins; Font 12; Double-spaced)
Must contain in-text citations in current APA Style
Check your spelling and grammar
Include a minimum of three or more credible sources (books, journal articles, magazine/newspaper articles, etc.)
Paper Outline:
Represented in US
Click here for additional help with APA Style.
See rubric for specific grading criteria.
Due Sunday, 11:59 p.m. (Pacific time)
Points: 200
My Topic is Ancient Egypt
I have signed one outline research paper before regarding this assignment which I will attach it below .If you have any question please email me .THanks
Research Paper Outline: Ancient Egypt
Saghar Vafaei
Cultural Pluralism

I. Introduction
a. Ancient Egypt has a rich historical record of the monuments, places, and culture that identifies the inhabitants’ way of life.
b. The research focuses on the ancient Egyptians’ early life, including their history, cultural representation in the United States, and overall cultural values.
II. History: Ancient Egypt was a prominent civilization with a rich history classified in different periods.
a. The first was the predynastic period, followed by the archaic or early dynastic period.
b. Further, the historians grouped the old kingdom, first intermediate, the middle kingdom of the 12th dynasty, second intermediate, new kingdom, and the third intermediate period (Van De Mieroop, 2021).
III. In the United States, the ancient Egyptian culture’s content is evident in architectural buildings and exhibits in the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
a. The Egyptian collections in this building and the design represent the cultural and historical content of the Egyptians.
IV. Under the cultural value dimension, the ancient Egyptian culture embraced collectivism.
a. According to Van De Mieroop (2021), the people collectively believed in the pharaoh’s leadership, who they respected and viewed as a divine leader.
b. Also, they had a collective belief in worshiping different gods and goddesses, such as Isis.
V. Worth noting, the ancient Egyptians had high artistic values in pottery, sculptures, architectural buildings, music, and dance (Riggs, 2017).
a. For instance, the architectural construction of the temples, such as the Kom Omb and Giza pyramids, are notable artistic works.
VI. As an ancient culture, the people embraced personhood or a sense of self.
a. For example, when a pharaoh died, they inscribed his portrait and significant events on his tomb as an autograph to protect his integrity.
VII. Further, religion was an essential value in this culture, which helped the ancient Egyptians upholding living in harmony and promoting life after death.
a. Notably, the religion in ancient Egypt was Heka, the god with the power of magic and medicine, and allowed the people to commune with other gods.
VIII. On an important note, men, and women in ancient Egyptians had equal rights
a. For instance, both men and women could go hunting and fishing and had the right to own property and rule (Khalil et al. 2017).
IX. On matters, acculturation, this was a practice evident in the second intermediary period.
a. The interactions that occurred between the Egyptians and Nubians made these two societies borrow certain beliefs and art practices. In this sense, there was acculturation of the animal motifs created by the ancient Egyptians and burial practices of the Nubians.
X. Conclusion
a. In conclusion, researching the ancient Egyptian culture enlightens an individual on essential values that the people upheld (Van De Mieroop, 2021).
b. Generally, religious beliefs, artistic values, among other cultural values, have been adopted by different countries such as the US.

Khalil, R., Moustafa, A. A., Moftah, M. Z., & Karim, A. A. (2017). How knowledge of ancient Egyptian women can influence today’s gender role: does history matter in gender psychology?. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 2053.
Riggs, C. (2017). In the shadows: The study of ancient Egyptian art. Orientalistische
Literaturzeitung, 112(4-5), 293-300. _Art_review_essay_Orientalistische_Literaturzeitung_112_4_5_2017_online_first_DOI_ 10_1515_olzg_2017_0093
Van De Mieroop, M. (2021). A history of ancient Egypt. John Wiley & Sons.

Answer preview

The cultural value dimension provides a vital insight into Egyptian culture, and historical records demonstrate that the Egyptian culture was collectivist. Egyptians were united under the Pharaoh’s leadership, whom they revered and regarded as a divinely ordained leader. In the religious sphere, Egyptians embodied similar collectivism in their recognition and worship of different gods. Isis was one such god that featured prominently in almost all the social groupings. Heka, the god with the power of magic and medicine, was another central figure in the ancient Egyptian religion. Ancient Egyptians believed that the god Heka was a key link between the people and other gods, allowing them to commune efficiently. Artistry was another facet that defined the Egyptian culture across the diverse periods that this paper highlighted. It is vital to note that the ancient Egyptians had high artistic values in pottery, sculptures, architectural

[1296 Words]

Egyptian Culture