Reliability and Validity

However, in scholarly research, the rules are more strict and we are required to follow protocols so the data is as accurate and it can be applied to our issue under investigation.

Here is our DB discussion topic:

For this weeks assignment, please indicate two types of reliability (e.g., test-retest) and one type of validity (e.g., concurrent) and provide a definition of each then an example of when and how it would be applied in a research scenario. You are encouraged to apply this topic to your current job or profession.

Be sure to respond to at least 2 of your classmates’ posts.

The original work should be at least 350 word count

Requirements: 350 words

I am a social worker at a elementary school in Mississippi

Answer preview

Validity measures whether a specific test has measured what it is supposed to measure. This is to ensure that the results recorded can be accurately interpreted and applied. Criterion-related validity is one type of validity that is used to measure to which extent the results of a used measure correspond or align to the results of other valid measures that apply a similar concept (Van Iddekinge et al., 2019). For example, during the hiring of new social workers, the school assesses different criteria that are likely to predict whether the new social workers would be effective in their job. Social workers who do well on the test are more likely to do well if employed than those who do poorly on a test.

[540 Words]

Reliability and Validity

Employment and future goals

Part 1: Introduce yourself to your classmates with your name, location, current employment, and future goals.

Part 2: As you have learned in this lesson, it is not unusual for researchers to naturally adopt a methodology (quantitative or qualitative) that is consistent with their own worldview. Explain your worldview when it comes to research.

Please include the name of the person or question to which you are replying in the subject line. For example, “Tom’s response to Susan’s comment.”

Requirements: 300

Answer preview

Further, Federigo, in the story “Federigo’s Falcon,” portrays a dynamic character. At first, Federigo is a wealthy man who uses all his riches to woe the lady he loves, Monna Giovanna. The lavish spending makes Federigo poor, forcing him to shift to his small farm with his only possession, the falcon. According to Boccaccio (par. 1), Federigo did not think that his wealth would finish at any point in his life, thus portraying a careless trait that drove him to poverty in wanting to please a woman. This example reflects Federigo’s dynamic character because after realizing that the little he had could not sustain his livelihood in the city, he moved to his small farmhouse at Campi. Due to living in poverty and having lost his only falcon to

[334 Words]

Employment and future goals

Family Dynamics and The Chapters of My Life

NOTICE***(Due Sunday by midnight at the end of week 3)

Assignment Requirements (Use as a checklist):

Suggested Outline

  • Name on top right corner of page
  • Title centered 4 spaces under name
  • Introduction – 1st paragraph
    1. Define concepts to be covered
    2. Explain how you see these concepts in your own family
    3. List the main concepts you are going to discuss in the body of the paper. Make sure to have at least 6. You need one paragraph in the body for each point you mention in this part of the introduction.
    4. State thesis: purpose of paper. This is the last sentence of your introduction. (Ex: Since families play such a major role in our lives, it is very important to understand the theories and systems at work within them .)
  • Body – 2nd thru 6th or 8th paragraphs
    1. The 2nd paragraph of your paper (or 1st paragraph of the body should discuss the first concept you listed in the introduction.
    2. The next paragraph of your paper should discuss the 2nd concept you listed.
    3. Continue in this pattern until you have addressed the concepts you listed.
  • Conclusion – Last paragraph
    1. Restate your thesis or the purpose of your paper
    2. Write about why this is important
    3. Remember to make the conclusion similar in length to the other paragraphs.

*Many students write a one or two sentence conclusion. Do not do that.

Grading Grid

Item Description Percent
Correct definition of concepts 10%
Statement of main points and thesis in introduction 5%
Properly indented paragraphs 5%
Content in introduction 5%
Content in body 40%
Content in conclusion 5%
Balance – paragraphs similar in length – about 150 words 5%
Organization – followed format (intro, body, conclusion) 5%
Spelling 10%
Grammar 10%
Total: 100%
  • There will be a 20 pt. penalty for writing less than 1200 words on this assignment
  • There will be a 10 pt. penalty for each day the assignment is late. It is due Sunday, by midnight, of week 3.
  • There will be a 100 pt. penalty for plagiarizing. This means a 0. If in doubt, cite, cite, cite.

*Last, but not least, if you have any questions, please ask.

Parenthetical (In-Text) Citations

A parenthetical (in-text) citation is when you place the source in parenthesis ( ) right after the sentence you cited instead of waiting until the end of the paper. It helps the reader to

know exactly what sentences and paragraphs are taken from particular sources.

Place the author’s name and the source’s date of publication in parentheses immediately after the end of the cited material. If it is a direct quote, include the page number as well.

For example:

Helpful Tips

  • Always use spell and grammar check
  • Make sure you indented the paragraphs (10 spaces or half an inch)
  • Balance. Each paragraph should be similar in length
  • Review the APA video and resource in Student Resources under Course Home.
  • You can send your paper to the Keiser OWL (Online Writing Lab) for review and to ask for help.
Title: Exploring marriages & families
Edition: 3rd
Publisher: Pearson; 3 edition (2018)

  • ISBN: 978-0135828298

this the book i dont have it try looking it up online

Answer preview

Terminologies used to describe members of a family, like brother or aunt, are vital. These words often denote the responsibilities and rights of each member within the household and the larger community. Status and role are vital when exploring the behaviors expected of people occupying positions within a family (Bales & Parsons, 2014). These terms were first used by an anthropologist named Ralph Linton and have since been integrated into social science (Bales & Parsons, 2014). Status denotes an individual’s culturally designated position, while role refers to the collection of behaviors expected from a person occupying a specific status. According to Bales and Parsons (2014), different cultures perceive family statuses and roles differently. Bales and Parsons (2014) further argue that statutes, like roles, are culturally based. Courtesy of this, there will be a difference in how people meet these cultural expectations. As alluded to in the previous paragraph, I grew up in a nuclear family comprised of two parents, my siblings,

[1650 Words]

Family Dynamics and The Chapters of My Life

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Design

You will critically appraise a research design

Content Requirements:

You will select one research report with a qualitative design and one with quantitative design and answer the following questions regarding the following categories:

  1. Discuss what is meant by the term Qualitative Research
  2. The study, sampling, data collection, analysis, rigor, findings and limitations
  3. Discuss what you understand by the term Quantitative Research – Use the following dot points to guide your discussion (give reasons for your argument and support with references):
    • Describe the characteristics of quantitative research.
    • Identify nursing issues/phenomena that lend themselves to a quantitative research approach
    • Differentiate between observational and interventional research designs and also between experimental and quasi-experimental designs.
    • Briefly, outline the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics and their relationship to levels of measurement.
    • Communicate how this research design used in research.
  4. Critique the Quantitative Research Report – Use the following headings to guide your critique (in all discussions and explanations give reasons for your argument and support with references):
    • The study
      • Identify the purpose and design of the study.
      • Explain what is meant by ‘blinding’ and ‘randomization’ and discuss how these were addressed in the design of the study.
      • Identify ethical issues related to the study and how they were/were not addressed.
    • Sampling
      • Explain the sampling method and recruitment strategy that was used.
      • Discuss how the sample size was determined – include in your discussion an explanation of terms used.
    • Data collection
      • Briefly, outline how the data was collected and identify any data collection instrument(s).
      • Define the terms validity and reliability and discuss how the validity & reliability of the instruments were/were not addressed in this study and why this is important.
    • Data analysis
      • Outline how the data were analyzed.
      • Identify the statistics used and the level of measurement of the data described by each statistical test – include in your discussion an explanation of terms used.
    • Findings and limitations
      • Briefly, outline the findings and identify any limitations of the study
      • Use the information that you have gained from your critique of the study to briefly discuss the trustworthiness and applicability of the study. Include in your discussion an explanation of the term statistical significance and name the tests of statistical significance used in this study.

Submission Instructions:

  • The paper is to be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation and misspelling.
  • The paper should be formatted per current APA and 4-5 pages in length, excluding the title, abstract and references page.
  • Incorporate a minimum of 3 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work.

Requirements: 4-5 pages in length, excluding the title, abstract and references page.   |   .doc file

Answer preview

Parents have negative experiences in their discussions of issues of obesity and overweight with nurses, and they have limited knowledge on managing childhood obesity. The major limitation is the small sample size that is self-selected and hence does not adequately represents the study population (Hardy et al., 2019).

Applicability of the Study and its Implications in Nursing

The findings from this study implicate the need for health institutions to offer structured support to the nurses to offer patient education on childhood obesity. However, there is a need for a more comprehensive and extensive research process to confirm findings before application.

[1894 Words]

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Design

Experience with locating and reading weekly research articles

Describe your experience with locating and reading weekly research articles. Share an example of an article that has been useful and applicable to your practice. Share an example of an article (or information) that was not helpful. Provide rationale.

Submission Instructions:

Requirements: 500 words

Answer preview

The Article That Was Useful and The Article That Was Not Helpful

An example of a research article I found helpful in my nursing practice was “Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Nursing Care.” The journal article clearly illustrates the positive influence of information technology in health care delivery and the role of nurses in attaining improved service delivery in information management, decision making, and communication (Rouleau et al., 2017). Reading the article increased my understanding of the role of information technology in nursing practice. Additionally, I have encountered literature that had irrelevant information about the nursing practice because it has incomplete information. The research article did not exhaustively discuss the subject in question. My search was based on the importance of the art of nursing in the nursing practice, but most of the information provided in the investigation did not touch on the subject’s importance to the nursing practice.

[683 Words]

Experience with Locating and Reading Weekly Research Articles

Final research proposal

Assignment Content

Throughout this course, you will be working towards formulating a final research proposal due in Week 8. This proposal will guide you through the process of conducting responsible research, even though you will not be conducting the study you describe in your proposal in real life. You will complete different steps in the research proposal process each week and will be expected to implement the feedback provided by your instructor in your final proposal. Here are the steps (course assignments) leading up to your final proposal:

Wk 4 Research Plan

Wk 5 Research Proposal Part 1 – Introduction to Research Study

Wk 6 Research Proposal Part 2 – Methods of Research Study

Wk 7 Research Proposal Q&A: Results and Discussion Sections

Wk 8 Research Proposal Part 3 – Discussion and Revisions of Research Study

Read the Research Proposal Guide for details about these assignments. This week you are working on the research plan..

Develop a plan for the research you will do to complete your proposal by Week 8.

Locate and read 5 scholarly peer-reviewed articles on your topic.

Write a 700- to 1,050-word research plan in which you:

Define the research topic that you plan to use.

Summarize your plan for the following:

Study design (i.e., experimental, correlational)

Variables of interest


Provide an annotated bibliography for each of the 5 articles you chose.

Format according to APA guidelines


Methods in Behavioral Research, Ch. 6

Methods in Behavioral Research, Ch. 7

Answer preview

In their article, Boserup et al. (2020) outline that the Covid 19 pandemic caused serious destruction, not only economic destruction but also social destruction. To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the state governments implemented some policies like stay-at-home orders and social distancing. The implementation of the stay-at-home orders led to an increase in DV cases in different regions across the country. For instance, the Portland police department in Oregon reported a 22% increase in DV-related arrests compared to the prior week before the implementation of the stay-at-home policies. Similarly, the San Antonio Police department recorded an 18% increase in calls pertaining to family violence in March 2020 compared to the previous year. The sheriff’s department in Jefferson, Alabama, recorded an increase in DV-related calls by 27% in 2020 compared to the previous year.

[1318 Words]

Final research proposal

Cohort study design and the case-control study design

Discussion Post

Address the following:

Be sure all outside sources are cited using current APA style.

Requirements: 1 page

Answer preview

The case-control study design can be used in the following circumstances. Where acquiring samples from exposed test subjects is either expensive or hard to get, where a certain disease takes a long time to occur or appear, when dealing with a rare disease that would require a considerably large sample, where the test subjects of a disease are dynamic and hard to keep track of for good results, and where there is little information regarding a disease (Park, 2019). The case-control study method evaluates diverse exposures to establish causation.

  • What makes the case-control study design so popular?

The case-control study design is popular because it lacks the limitations brought about by the cohort study design. Case-control studies are especially effective when studying rare diseases.

[371 Words]

Cohort study design and the case-control study design

Research methodology and conceptual frameworks.

For this assignment, you will select an appropriate appraisal tool (cohort studies, case control studies, systematic reviews, qualitative studies, et cetera) to analyze three published journal articles related to the topic of hypertension in the African American population. This assignment will help you to develop critical and analytical skills by methodically appraising the merits of published research. A sound appraisal will gather the most reliable information concerning a health problem, relevant research methodology, and conceptual frameworks.

In addition, you will write a brief summary on how you will use the information from these appraised journal articles in your proposed intervention study and determine how the interpretation of the research results described in the articles are affected by information bias, selection bias, and confounding.


  1. Analyze three published journal articles related to the topic you selected for the assignment in Unit 3.
  2. Write a brief summary of how you will use the information from these appraised journal articles in your proposed intervention study and how the interpretation of the research results described in the articles are affected by information bias, selection bias, and confounding.
Document Format and Length
  • Use the Appraisal of Literature Template, attached.
  • Your appraisal document should be 2–4 pages in length.
Appraisal Requirements

The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the Critical Appraisal of Published Literature Scoring Guide, so be sure to address each point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

  • Analyze research articles related to an epidemiological issue, using the appropriate appraisal tools.
  • Summarize how information from appraised journal articles could be integrated into a proposed intervention study.
  • Identify the public health data that highlight the severity and magnitude of a selected epidemiological issue.
  • Discuss how interpretation of results from scholarly articles are affected by information bias, selection bias, and confounding.
  • Write clearly and concisely in a logically coherent and appropriate form and style.

Submission Requirements

Proofread your assignment, before you submit it, to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it more difficult for them to focus on the substance of your appraisal.

Requirements: 2-4 pages- template attached

Answer preview

The articles are pretty informative on the subject of hypertension among African Americans. This information will be helpful in my proposal in several ways. The first article is very informative regarding the role of race in the fight against hypertension. The article enlightens readers on the various aspects of hypertension management, including counseling, adherence to medication, and confidence in self-management. Additionally, the second article enlightens on the risk factors, including anemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular and renal comorbidities. The third article mainly focuses on the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication. It concludes that patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions are highly likely to receive prescriptions that may lead to harmful drug-drug interactions. These articles will be useful in guiding my research questions.

However, the interpretation of these results is also affected by information bias, selection bias, and confounding. In article one, for instance, the results are affected by information bias since the responses collected from participants were based on self-report. In this case, there was a probability of failure to recall about diagnosis or counseling by participants. Additionally, since the sample included all individuals who have ever been told that they had hypertension, and those who did not have it at the moment were not included, the estimation of patient adherence or provider intervention may have been overestimated or underestimated due to information bias. With regard to sampling, the third study used a convenient sample, while the second study was conducted in a single urban hospital, and the first study used a sample of all who had been informed of having hypertension. This sample selection