Rhetorical critical analysis essay

You will be writing a rhetorical critical analysis essay. No first person perspective.

This is a not a first-person narrative, personal commentary, or book review. There is nothing “autobiographical” in nature, also known as an “author’s bio,” to be explored within this essay assignment. If your readers are interested in reading about Maxine Hong Kingston biography, there is plenty of information out there; this is not your focus.

Instead, your goal is to create a working thesis, based off an area you found interesting in reading the book, while using the PDFs, etc., to create a “working thesis.” However, it is your responsibility to draw connections, even when they are not so obvious, to the “Essay Prompt/Topic” below, using the primary text, academic/scholarly PDFs, and other content having been provided for you in this course, in effort to support a solid thesis statement and/or argument of the essay.

TIP: Ground your argument/position with a philosopher(s) and/or ideologies from the course text(s), especially since there is no use first-person allowed. If you elect to write in first person, you will have failed the essay assignment. Write a minimum of a five, full (5) pages, MLA-formatted essay (acceptable, but not required to go over five pages). Anything less than a full five (5) pages will result in a compromise in points. This means you did not meet the “minimum requirements.” Your Works Cited page is not considered part of the minimum five (5) full pages.

Supporting your Thesis & Minimum Sources and Citation Requirements *Six (6) Citations Total

1. Support your thesis: Use a minimum of three (3) citations from The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts, ideally to support your thesis.

2. *Select an additional two (2) resources provided: Select a minimum of one (1) citation from each source, from any of the academic/scholarly PDFs on Kingston.

3. *Select one (1) academic/scholarly source on your own: Utilize your Fresno City College Library Database skills.
a. This can be a book, film, academic/scholarly article, and more.
b. Regardless of what you select, it must be accessed it from the Library (online).
c. Disclaimer: No outside sources, other than the FCC Library requirement is allowed. Any outside commercialized, mainstream sources such as Wikipedia, Merriam-Dictionary, Walt Disney references, social media, general websites, Yahoo, etc. Instead, any and/all contributions must be academic/scholarly in nature, and through the use of the Fresno City College Library database (only).

No exceptions. In the end, it will look like this (Citations | Sources | & What’s Listed on Your Works Cited)

• Three (3) citations from The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts

• Two (2) citations, one from two (2) different sources that come from the academic/scholarly PDFs provided for you in this course.

• One (1) citation, from one (1) academic/scholarly in nature that will come from the Fresno City College Library. Minimum Total number of citations: six (6) Minimum Total number of sources: four (4)

Answer preview

Kingston uses pathos to make the reader understand how her aunt’s experience was centered on the victimization of women and girls to promote change on the stereotype towards the Asian women in America. Chinese who migrated to America risk articulating gendered expectations in the immigrant settings (Shi, 31). In other words, the No Name Woman shows how the outcomes of the act of adultery by her aunt were a subject of women’s oppression. ”It was probably a girl; there is some hope of forgiveness for boys, (Kingston, 232). Kingstone evokes sympathy from the reader to her aunt, her cousin, and women in the Chinese culture. In this version of the story, readers understand that if an illegitimate boy would be forgiven and accepted in the village, then the culture was not against adultery, but women were destabilizing the social code (Schueller, 422). Kingstone successfully portrays a new Chinese American female identity by challenging the stereotype that Asian women were committed to their oppression (Mok, pg 61).

[1705 Words]

Rhetorical critical analysis essay


Communication Channel

For this assignment, think back of a time where you think you used the wrong channel to convey a message to someone in your life. Examples could be sending a text message to break up with someone, or emailing a boss when in both situations you should have talked to them face to face.

In a 2-page paper, written using appropriate spelling/grammar, address the items below. Remember to be descriptive, and use as much detail in your examples as possible.

  1. Describe the relationship you have/had with the person in the interaction.
  2. Explain which channel you used initially and why you think it was the wrong means to communicate with them.
  3. Explain which channel would have been better for the situation and why you think it would have been more effective.

Answer preview

Reflecting on time, I think I used the wrong form of communication when I was breaking up with someone, we had dated for quite a long time. I believe a weak communication channel was used considering the long-term relationship we shared. This person became my lover after several years of friendship; hence the break up was a significant decision in both our lives. Therefore, I now realize that a better mode of communication should have been used to end things without grudging. This person was not only a lover but a friend to also my family members. It is obvious they play a crucial role in my life, but I chose to take the coward way out, and end things between us.

[656 Words]

Communication Channel

Alcohol Abuse

Topic: Alcohol Abuse in the Marine Corps

This paper should be 1000 words in length (all inclusive).

Your paper can focus on either a current or past employer of yours, or some other company with which you have significant familiarity. What’s needed is some knowledge of the inner workings of the company–its struggles, its strengths, its climate, and so forth.

The paper should include the following four sections:

1. Organization – Provide just enough details on the company for me to be able to understand the problem that will be described. Resist the urge to provide irrelevant details and feel free to omit or disguise any details that might be sensitive in nature.

2. Problem – Describe, specifically, one problem that the company is struggling with that will serve as the focus of the paper. Resist the urge to discuss multiple problems–focus on one specific issue with which the organization is struggling. Be sure to focus on a problem that can be impacted by the relevant topics.

3. Topic – Choose at least two topics from the list below and apply those topics to the problem. Describe very specifically how the concepts, principles, and findings represented in the topic matter to the problem, and how they can be leveraged to articulate a solution.

  • Value-precept theory
  • Job characteristics theory
  • Challenge-hindrance stressors
  • Expectancy theory
  • Goal setting theory
  • Equity theory
  • Psychological empowerment
  • Cognition-based trust
  • Justice
  • Ethical decision making
  • Cognitive ability
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Team processes
  • Types of power
  • Transformational leadership

4. Recommendations – Provide a list of very specific recommendations/action steps that flow out of the discussion of the topics and that can help solve the problem. In thinking about how to craft the topics into those recommendations, strike a balance between being practical and being bold. Every organization has key constraints that need to be taken into account when designing interventions. Although those should be considered, resist the urge to “play it safe”, as that tendency often leads to modest interventions that are ultimately ineffective.

Beyond the parameters above, please bring your own self-expression, initiative, and creativity to the content and style of the paper. 80% of the paper grade will revolve around content issues, with 20% revolving around writing style issues–please see rubric for additional details.


APA format, cover page, references, introductory paragraph & length
Distinguishes a primary source from a secondary source

Identified organization and/or industry

Framed the problem(s)
Discussed the topic(s) thoroughly
Provided plausible solutions as part the recommendation

Organization, logic, & integration of primary and secondary sources
Provides historical context of primary source
Grammar and Writing clarity

Answer preview

A significant problem that the Marine Corps organization is struggling with is the problem of alcohol abuse. Heavy use of alcohol is a significant problem that is affecting the Marine Corps. The issue of alcohol abuse among the Marine Corps is often attributed to their attempt to cope with stress, their expectations regarding heavy drinking after duty and when they are on leave, and the use of alcohol as a recreational activity (Montenegro, 2019). In the Marine Corps, drinking opportunities have been ritualized while alcohol is also readily available, contributing to a culture that facilitates the abuse of alcohol. This has been a drawback for the organization in achieving its objectives because of the inefficiencies caused by alcoholism. The organization has implemented various strategies to address alcohol abuse, which includes developing alcohol use policies and campaigns that focus on promoting health and personal responsibility.

[1058 Words]

Alcohol Abuse

Organizational Control

For this assignment, the Group will analyze the assigned Company’s current condition. You will use the text chapters 10 and 11 as your framework for the analysis, and will incorporate information from external sources including the company and other credible sites.

Your Group deliverable will be presented in APA format, will include appropriate topical headings to organize and segment the paper, with correctly formatted citations and references. This deliverable is due at 11:59 PM CT Sunday, at the end of Week 7.

Minimally the report will include the following:

Just need the organizational Control!!!


Group Deliverable


Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResponds fully to the assignment
4.0 ptsExcellent 3.0 ptsGood 1.0 ptsNot Quite Adequate 0.0 ptsPoor
4.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInvokes and uses disciplinary facts correctly
2.0 ptsGood 1.0 ptsNot Quite Adequate 0.0 ptsPoor
2.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeProvides adequate supporting arguments with reasons, evidence, and examples
2.0 ptsGood 1.0 ptsNot Quite Adequate 0.0 ptsPoor
2.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIs focused, well organized, and unified
1.0 ptsGood 0.0 ptsPoor
1.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeUses direct language that is appropriate for the audience
2.0 ptsGood 1.0 ptsNot Quite Adequate 0.0 ptsPoor
2.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCorrectly documents and cites sources
2.0 ptsGood 1.0 ptsNot Quite Adequate 0.0 ptsPoor
2.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIs free of errors in grammar, punctuation, word choice, spelling, and format
2.0 ptsGood 1.0 ptsNot Quite Adequate 0.0 ptsPoor
2.0 pts
Total Points: 15.0

Here is the company website: www.radiantdelivers.com

And the link of e-book: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-o56-qTgT0IqMmpHT…

You can find the chapter by the e-book.

Answer preview

Financial controls are also prevalent at Radiant. Long (2018), explains that financial controls enable firms to evaluate their financial performance against the predetermined standards established at the beginning of the business year. Each year Radiant releases at least one press briefing on their website to evaluate their financial performance and the value they have made for their shareholders. The most recent press briefing on financial controls was released on the 28th of April this year in which they called an investor to discuss the progress they had made based on the results of their third quarter in the fiscal year. These financial controls have enabled them to identify times they did not reach their targets, evaluate the actions that led to that,

[428 Words]

Organizational Control

Clinical Trial of Education

2. Critique the article provided (A Randomized, Clinical Trial of Education or Motivational-Interviewing–Based Coaching Compared to Usual Care to Improve Cancer Pain Management).
Submit the critique assignment to both submission button and Turnitin

two to three references, should be within 5 years

1-2 pages or 1000 words

Answer preview

Therefore, the authors have clearly outlined the educational significance of the problem and the educational gaps that will be investigated by the research. This is achieved by addressing the patients’ attitudinal barriers that have been found by previous studies to be a significant factor that affects the effective treatment of pain in cancer patients. The background of the study introduces the reader to the problem addressed. Thomas, Fahey, & Christine Miaskowski (2012) have also stated the hypothesis of the study. The hypothesis states that motivational-interviewing-based coaching provides more benefits in managing cancer pain than either the usual care or educational interventions.

[1293 Words]

Clinical Trial of Education

Principles of communication

Go back and review the Communication Principles in the reading and in this module’s lesson content. Familiarize yourself with the information and address the following in your post.

  1. Choose two of the principles of communication.
  2. Provide two examples for each of the principles (so you will have a total of 4 examples by the end of your post).
  3. How could you apply your knowledge of these principles in a future interaction to prevent or reduce misunderstanding?

Answer preview

The knowledge of these principles of communication can be applied in preventing or reducing misunderstanding in future interactions. Among the ways in which I can apply the knowledge of these principles is by being specific in communication. When sending an email, making a phone call, or talking in a meeting, I can apply the knowledge of these principles by avoiding spending much time giving details that are unnecessary to prevent misunderstanding. This can be achieved by keeping it straight to the point. I can also apply the knowledge of these principles to maintain focus during communication to track the points I want to communicate in the message. This is because when one is not focused during communication, it is easy to forget to share important points on the matter being addressed, which can misguide the audience.

[662 Words]

Principles of communication

Evidence-based practice project

In order to evaluate an evidence-based practice project, it is important to be able to determine the effectiveness of your change. Discuss one way you will be able to evaluate whether your project made a difference in practice.

Answer preview

The evidence-based project suggested in this article entails the implementation of self-care methods to prevent burnout among critical care nurses. Nursing burnout in a critical care unit can negatively impact the quality of services delivered to patients in critical units. Burnout in nursing is attributable to a plethora of factors, including poor nursing leadership, depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, poor evidence-based clinical practices among nurses, and the nurse-to-patient ratios (Ghavidel, Fallahi-Khoshknab, Molavynejad,& Zarea, 2019). If it remains unmanaged, nursing burnout can contribute to numerous medical errors in health care. Some of the solutions suggested including an increase in the ratio of nurse to doctor, nursing leadership, and implementation of evidence-based clinical practices. The proposed evidence-based practice project will prevent burnout among critical care nurses and facilitate the implementation of quality care.

[408 Words]

Evidence-Based Practice Project

Research Design

Researchers –

As you know, your next piece that you will be turning in is the Research Design. Please do not confuse this with what you put into your proposal. The research design is all about the methodology you will use to conduct your study – it has nothing to do with the TYPES of sources you use. For example, if your study is a case study, you will tell me what a case study is and why it is the right methodology. Then, outline your plan for the case study. If you are doing a historical or document review, you will tell me all about that methodology and why it is the right one. Some of you included part of this in your proposal – so go back to your proposal and read my notes again on the copy I uploaded!

Based on your proposals, I expect your Research Design section to be only about 2 (maybe 3) paragraphs long. That is it!

You will also want to have a subheader for Limitations of the Study. Here are some limitations you will want to consider:

  • Reliability of sources/data. You are using second-hand data and you have to trust the sources are reliable – this is why your data should ONLY be scholarly or peer-reviewed.
  • Classification. Much of the data for a study in the field of homeland security is classified, so you will not have access to it.
  • Vast amount of data. This is true because of the various kinds of terrorism, lack of an agreed upon definition, or the number of incidents.
  • Limitation of Time. This is especially true for a case study! Your study is bound by time, so you may not be considering all available information.
  • Researcher Bias. Folks, we all have this! This is the unconscious bias we bring with us. Some of you saw comments about this in your proposals – we go into this thinking we know the answer – that is bias. This impacts every researcher, so I will be looking for this! You must include something about research bias!

So, here is a simple outline of what you want to be talking about:

Part 1 (1 paragraphs) – Tell me about the methodology and why it is the right methodology. What are the benefits and limitations of this methodology.

Part 2 (1 paragraphs)- Tell me how you will apply this methodology. If you are using variables from another study or have specific things you are looking for, you may need a second paragraph.

Part 3 (usually 1 paragraph) – Limitations of the Study.

I am attaching some samples of Research Design that you can review. One of the research design examples is for a comparative case study and the other for a document review (the student also conducted a risk analysis, but for those of you doing historical, policy or document reviews, the basics are here).

Remember – you must use scholarly references for this section! You cannot talk about research methodology without references! – remember these were done with earlier versions of APA!


Lesson Material:

Let us first review what is outlined in the End of Program Manual (EOP) for the Research Design section of your thesis:

Research Design/Methodology: Describes how the student will test the hypothesis and carry out his/her analysis. This section describes the data to be used to test the hypothesis, how the student will operationalize and collect data on his/her variables, and the analytic methods that to be used, noting potential biases and limitations to the research approach. It should include

• identification and operationalization (measurement) of variables;
• a sampling plan (i.e., study population and sampling procedures, if appropriate);
• justification of case studies used;
• data collection/sources (secondary literature, archives, interviews, surveys, etc.);
• a summary of analysis procedures (pattern-matching, etc.); and
• the limitations of study and bias discussion.


A review of basic terminology explains that a research methodology refers to the nature of your inquiry on a topic. The purpose of your research may range from a desire to solve a problem, explore an issue, or generate new knowledge. You will then select a research approach, which refers to whether you will address your topic through qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed approach. The tool(s) that you select within your methodology is called a research design. Qualitative research is associated with certain tools as is quantitative research. As a result of conducting your literature review and theoretical framework, you will have identified several research designs in the literature. The lesson overview contains eight examples of research designs recently used in theses.


There are only three academic research methods. They are qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. Here is a brief overview of each:

Qualitative Research Overview

Qualitative research is designed to reveal a target audience’s range of behavior and the perceptions that drive it with reference to specific topics or issues. It uses in-depth studies of small groups of people to guide and support the construction of hypotheses. The results of qualitative research are descriptive rather than predictive.

Qualitative research methods originated in the social and behavioral sciences: sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Today, qualitative methods in the area of marketing research include in-depth interviews with individuals, group discussions (from two to ten participants is typical); diary and journal exercises; and in-context observations. Sessions may be conducted in person, by telephone, via video conferencing and the Internet.

Why Qualitative Research Works

Several unique aspects of qualitative research contribute toward rich, insightful results:

  • Synergy among respondents, as they build on each other’s comments and ideas.
  • The dynamic nature of the interview or group discussion process, which engages respondents more actively than is possible in more structured surveys.
  • The opportunity to probe (“Help me understand why you feel that way”) enabling the researcher to reach beyond initial responses and rationales.
  • The opportunity to observe, record, and interpret non-verbal communication (i.e., body language, voice intonation) as part of a respondent’s feedback, which is valuable during interviews or discussions, and during analysis.
  • The opportunity to engage respondents in “play” such as projective techniques and exercises, overcoming the self-consciousness that can inhibit spontaneous reactions and comments.

Source: http://www.qrca.org/?page=whatisqualresearch

Quantitative Research Overview

Your goal in conducting a quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality.

Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance (emphasis added). Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.e., the generation of a variety of ideas about a research problem in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner].

Its main characteristics are:

  • The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments.
  • The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population.
  • The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.
  • Researcher has a clearly defined research question(s) to which objective answers are sought.
  • All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.
  • Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms.
  • Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships.
  • Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.

The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.

Source: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative

Mixed Methods Research Overview

Mixed-methods research comes out of an environment in which professional researchers have a tendency to use exclusivity in the use of either quantitative research or qualitative research approaches as described at the American Educational Research Association website. One characteristic of mixed-methods research is that this approach seeks to minimize the weaknesses and draw from the strengths of an exclusively qualitative or quantitative research methodology. Another characteristic is that this methodology recognizes the value of knowledge as constructed through qualitative means such as perceptions, as well as experience based on factual aspects of the world in which people live. Another key characteristic of the mixed-method research approach is that it rejects the dualism that sets qualitative or fact-based and quantitative or subjectively based methodologies as having value only in exclusivity from each other.

Source: http://www.ehow.com/list_7646151_characteristics-mixedmethod-design-research.html

Note: Many students say they are conducting mixed methods research when in fact, they are merely using either a qualitative or quantitative research method. This is because while most studies are either qualitative or quantitative, many include a modicum of a secondary method as well. However, in most cases, this does not constitute mixed methods research, which must include proportionate amounts of both qualitative and quantitative data to be classified as such.


The following section is excerpted in part from Schloss and Smith Conducting Research and Leedy and Ormrod Practical Research Planning and Design.

Qualitative research is characterized by an emphasis on describing, understanding, and explaining complex phenomena. This type of research focuses on relationships, patterns and configurations among factors; or the context in which activities occur. The focus is on understanding the full multi-dimensional, dynamic picture of the subject of study. Qualitative methods are useful not only in providing rich descriptions of complex phenomena, but in constructing or developing theories or conceptual frameworks, and in generating hypotheses to explain those phenomena (Schloss & Smith, 1999, pp. 85 – 91).

Its approaches contrast with quantitative methods that aim to divide phenomena into manageable, clearly defined pieces, or variables. Quantifying is useful for separating phenomena into distinct and workable elements of a conceptual framework. But, when we focus research on what we already know how to quantify, (that is, what can be reliably quantified), we may miss factors that are key to a real understanding of the phenomena being studied. The downside of quantification is that it does not always support (as well as qualitative methods) understanding of complex, dynamic, and multi-dimensional wholes. A mixed method approach may provide the ideal solution, using statistics to discover facts that can be explained by more nuanced description.

The selection of method, or combination of methods, must be tailored to the questions being studied and the setting for research. Typical methods include:

  • Naturalistic inquiry and participant observation: Naturalistic inquiry, or ethnography, has its roots in anthropology and sociology and involves long-term exposure to a setting or a group of people. Extensive use of unstructured observations and conversations documented by detailed field notes form the basis for this type of research, often considered the purest form of qualitative research. Naturalistic inquiry is used when situations are unique or complex, when the level of uncertainty about the questions to ask is high and when there is little or no theory to direct the investigator.
  • Case study research: Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context. The case study is especially appropriate when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. The case study copes with the technically distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points, and as one result relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangulating fashion.
  • Archival Research: Archival research involves investigators carrying out primary research that is unobtrusive in nature. With this kind of method, the investigator is working to collect data that was created for reasons beyond the research project (Berg & Lune, 2012). Archival research is inclusive of information contained in both public and private archives and may include documents obtained from schools, medical facilities, crime reports, birth and death records, etc. Archival research takes place at both regional and national sites throughout the world. The National Archives serves as an excellent starting point for researchers as it provides insight on archive locations and the types of records they might hold. With this kind of research, curious individuals would be good to make use of the archivist on-site. To be sure these knowledgeable individuals will happily provide researchers with information on what archives have yet to be reviewed in the hopes that the materials are put to good use. When visiting archives its best to call ahead and plan your visit so the materials can be prepared for you prior to your arrival. Asking for finding aids and archive lists in advance of your arrival can help speed up your on-site experience. In addition to visiting national or international archives some archival material can also be found online. Some reputable sources include the UK’s National Archives, Internet History Sourcebooks Project at Fordham University, and the New York Times Article Archive.
  • Structured observations of meetings and events: This involves attending meetings of the group that you wish to research. This can also be extended to observation of individuals in their daily work routine or on special tasks. The purpose of observing is to learn what is going on at the meeting and witness the group dynamic in process. This can be a rich information source as it can give researchers insight into the group.
  • Social Historical Research: Social historical research as the name implies focuses on examining elements of history in context (Berg & Lune, 2012). Ultimately, it involves looking at data made up of records and historical accounts in order to determine what happened during a specific time period. Based on the facts discovered the researchers then work to develop theoretical explanations surrounding historical events (Berg & Lune, 2012).
  • Content analysis of documents: This is a non-intrusive form of research. This involves reviewing documents, memos or other pieces of written information for content and themes. By examining the written word, the researcher is studying one type of communication that occurs in the selected sample. During the conduct of content analysis, the research works to reduce the content of the document down to a set of categories that are representative of the research interest (Singleton & Straits, 2010). Types of documents that can be coded include written documents, new articles, speeches, interviews, biographical information, memos, policies, and even photographs, video and audio recordings. When conducting content analysis, researchers develop codes and attach these to notes or transcript information. There are a number of qualitative research software options that researchers can use to help them code and draw connections between their data points. After the codes are categorized researchers are then able to see and evaluate patterns and compare these to commonly held theories or prior research findings. For an example of how content analysis can be carried out see the GAO’s “Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material.”
  • Collection and analysis of other archival, administrative and performance data: This method also is non-intrusive. Information that has been previously collected, or secondary data, is reviewed to gain a better understanding into the topic. This information is historical provides insight into the past.
  • Focus groups: Focus groups usually explore specific issues. The focus group brings together individuals chosen to meet a specific profile. They may be homogenous along some dimensions and heterogeneous along others and a structured, yet informal, setting is used to explore a limited number of questions. Focus groups, unlike individual interviews, provide the added dimension of the interactions among members. Focus groups are often combined with more quantitative approaches such as surveys that can be administered at different points in the group discussion and even used as grist for additional discussion.
  • Cognitive interviews: Cognitive interviews are typically used in survey development. One-to-one interviews are conducted (with people meeting the criteria for completing a particular survey) as the individuals complete the instrument being tested. This method helps investigators understand how people perceive and interpret language and their own experiences as they refine the survey instruments.
  • Mail and telephone surveys: Mail and telephone surveys are a method of collecting information by sending surveys via email or postal mail. Participants return completed forms to the researcher or an outside vendor. Surveys may ask respondents to rate items on a scale (a Likert scale of 1-5 is such an example). Some surveys also allow respondents to write their feelings or attitudes about a particular event or to elaborate in more detail on an item, or to express suggestions (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005, pp. 94 – 97).


When carrying out quantitative research there are a number of steps involved. Like with qualitative research we first start off with theory. Next, we work to deduce a hypothesis based on the theory. It is important to note that some quantitative research does not require the specification of a hypothesis. Instead, “the theory acts loosely as a set of concerns in relation to which the social researcher collects data” typically, hypotheses are specified in experimental research as this involve hypothesis testing (Bryman, 2012, p. 161). From here, we then move into the research design phase in the research process. This is where we work to operationalize (or measure) our concepts. Once this has been determined we then work to determine what research sites we plan to use and also determine our research subjects/respondents. After the subjects have been determined the investigator can then administer the research instruments and collect their data. After the data has been collected the investigator then moves into the data processing and analysis phases. Finally, they are then able to write up their findings and conclusions.

Survey Research

One of the most popular ways to collect data is through a survey. Think about how often you are asked to take a survey…when you leave a store, when you purchase something online, after talking to your cell phone carrier on the phone they ask if you are willing to take a survey, etc. They are everywhere.

Why? The general features are easy to work with.

  • They are versatile – Surveys can be designed to study almost any social issue and we can use them to learn about people, organizations, criminal behavior, etc.
  • They are efficient. Data can easily be collected from a large number of people relatively inexpensively and quickly.
  • Often times they can be generalizable as we are usually able to get information from a representative sample of a large population (Bachman & Schutt, 2012).

Please note that probably the most important thing to know about a survey is the development of the survey questions is very important. This will affect the reliability and validity of any data collected. Second to this is how the interview or survey is administered; this too is important and relates directly to the reliability and validity of the survey results. Keep in mind that survey questions are answered as part of a questionnaire, not in isolation from other questions. The context created by the questionnaire and how the questionnaire is administered affects how individual questions are interpreted; and whether they are even answered. Finally, we must give very careful attention to design of the questionnaire as a whole, as well as to each individual question that it includes.

Secondary Data Analysis

Another method that we can pull from to carry out quantitative research is through secondary data analysis. There is a tremendous amount of research done each year that makes use of this method. This type of research uses pre-existing data to perform the study in question rather than going out and collecting new data for the inquiry. In effect, the data have already been collected but they will be analyzed in a different way or can be used to answer a different research question than was originally intended by those who collected the data in the first place. This happens all of the time and it is a great way to do research.

The major types of secondary data analysis used in social science research include surveys; official statistics; official records; and historical documents.

The most common sources of secondary data are social science survey data collected in studies funded by federal and state government. Other common sources include official records maintained by government agencies for administrative, rather than research, purposes – for example, police department arrest data. Often what happens is a government agency – like the National Institute of Justice – will fund data collection and research. After the data is collected and several reports are written, the government agency then asks for a clean set of the data collected; they then hold this for other researchers that may want to analyze the data. Other researchers like you and I can request a portion of the data to answer certain research questions. In fact, the government agency encourages use of the data to help with our understanding of various social science and social policy questions. They will even sometimes fund researchers’ projects that analyze secondary data.

As you come to work with your data rather than just looking at what you have, you should also be thinking about what it means in relation to the theory or theories you are using in your research. Data analysis is something that should be looked at in conjunction to a researcher’s hypothesis (if carrying out an experimental study) or theoretical framework (Singleton & Straits, 2010). These frameworks “guide the collection and analysis of data, indicating what variables should be measured a statistically controlled” (Singleton & Straits, 2010, p. 53). The analysis portion of research then helps provide validation to current theoretical holdings, provides insight on theoretical gaps, and helps determine new areas of research that should be explored.

After researchers complete their research projects many are typically required to archive their work for preservation, recall, and sharing. While it is always good to save ones work, researchers that have created large data sets often come to share their data with others in the spirit of collaboration. The Global Terrorism Database at the University of Maryland, RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents, Data.gov, GIS Geography, Human Trafficking Indicators, USDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset are all examples of data sets that have been shared by researchers. This information is something that anyone can use in research looking to use secondary or existing data sets.


This information was excerpted in part from Center for Organization, Leadership, and Management Research (COLMR), a Center of Excellence of the VA Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D). (n.d.). Qualitative Research Approaches. Retrieved from http://www.colmr.research.va.gov/mgmt_research_in_…

Bachman, R. & Schutt, R. (2012). Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Sage.

Berg, B. & Lune, H. (2012). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. 8th ed. Pearson.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods 4th ed. Oxford University Press.

Cottam, M. (1994). Images and Intervention: U.S. Policies in Latin America. University of Pittsburg Press.

Prunckun, H. (2015). Scientific Methods of Inquiry for Intelligence Analysis. 2nd ed. Lanham, Maryland: Roman & Littlefield.

Schloss, P.J. & Smith, M.A. (1999). Conducting Research. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice.

Singleton, R.A. & Straits, B.C. (2010). Approaches to Social Research. 5th ed. Oxford University Press.

I have a bunch of examples as attached.

Answer preview

This research design’s overall objective is to provide a detailed analysis of US policy’s different effects on the propagation of lone-wolf terrorism. This objective lies within post-positivism as the nature of the problem to be explored. Hence, the design is best focused on measuring the meaning and construction of people in their experiences with US policy on terrorism (Noor, 2008). This justifies the rationale of using a qualitative research design in addressing the research problem. The major limitation in the use of qualitative case study design is limited reliability since it cannot be replicated to provide identical results by different researchers in other contexts.

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Research Design

Risk factors for development of cancer

In this assignment, you will complete a self-assessment to analyze your risk factors for development of cancer.

Step 1 Select a type of cancer to examine.

Step 2 Select a cancer risk factor self-assessment tool. There are a number of online cancer risk factor tools. Select one to explore your risk for your choice of cancer and remember to cite your source using proper APA 7th Edition formatting.

Step 3 Summarize your individual risk for development of cancer. In your summary, include the following information:

I would like my paper to focus on the topic of breast cancer since it runs in my family.

I’ve sent you the grading rubric.

Answer preview

Gender also influences breast cancer diagnosis. According to Pearlman, Jeudy, & Chelmow (2017), females comprise 99% of people affected by breast cancer. The majority of women who have breast cancer are past menopause. Even though men can sometimes be diagnosed with breast cancer, women have high chances since their hormones continuously change. Nutrition is crucial in influencing the development of cancer. Diet is the reason for several cases of breast cancer cases. According to Kotepui (2016), nutrition accounts for 35% of breast cancer cases. Studies indicate that postmenstrual women who consume red meat have high chances of being affected by breast cancer compared with premenstrual women. The mutagens that are present in meat have been found to induce the growth of tumors in mammary glands of animals, and this causes cancer. A fiber diet also influences breast cancer diagnosis. According to Kotepui (2016), food high in fiber decreases the reabsorption of the estrogen and therefore minimizes risks of cancer.

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Risk factors for development of cancer

Global business environment

(2 Writing Assignments 1 Chart)

Competency 1: Competency Assessment

Competency 1

Analyze the needs of organizations within a changing global business environment.

Competency Statement

Using a SWOT analysis, the MBA candidate will be able to evaluate competitive advantage and present a proposal for adapting to changes in the global business environment.

Assessment Overview

Working in business management means taking on responsibility to lead your organization in a variety of situations. Part of that responsibility is understanding where an organization has been and where it’s going. In this course, you will put yourself in the shoes of a manager and use resources to make decisions on where an organization is heading in respect to business needs, organizational structure, leadership strategies, and change management. Some of the information needed will be easy to locate, but other information will take time and effort to find. You may even need to make assumptions based on research. These research and strategizing skills will be useful in your business management career.

In this assessment you will evaluate the strategic needs of a company within a changing global environment.

You will be able to submit this assessment after you’ve completed the Reflection assignments in Modules 1 and 2. There is a Competency 1 – Assessment Submission module that appears in the course after Competency 1 – Module 2: Managerial Planning and Strategy.

Save and upload each part of the assessment as a separate file and title the files so it’s clear to see what part of the assessment they serve. Include your name in your documents on the first page, upper left.

Select a company – (BROOKFIELD PROPERTIES RETAIL) Complete: SWOT Analyses list – to use for the rest of the course (this will sometimes be referred to as “your organization”) and research its history.

Managers at each level of the organization use SWOT analysis to identify strategies that will best position the company to achieve its mission and goals.The first step in a SWOT analysis is to identify and describe an organization’s strengths and weaknesses that characterize the present state of the company. The next step requires managers to identify potential opportunities and threats in the environment that affect the organization in the present or possibly in the future.

When the SWOT analysis is complete, managers begin developing strategies. These strategies should allow the company to attain its goals by taking advantage of opportunities, countering threats, building strengths, and correcting organizational weaknesses.

Congratulations! You’ve been hired as a manager and have been asked to analyze the current status of your organization (the company you selected in Part 1 of this assessment).


Review your organization’s SWOT analysis and other available sources to evaluate the strategic needs of the organization within a changing global environment. Complete the Organizational Analysis worksheet for your evaluation.

Respond to the following in a minimum of 500 words:

Consider the four functions of management (e.g., planning, organizing, leading, and controlling).

  • How would you characterize your current or past supervisor’s approach to management?
  • For example, which particular management tasks and roles does this person perform most often?
  • What kinds of management skills does the manager have?
  • How does this approach affect a global environment ?


Submit your assignment.

Respond to the following in a minimum of 500 words:

The global business environment is constantly evolving based on the forces in the general and task environment. In order to sustain the company and maintain a competitive foothold, organization leaders must consistently analyze the global environment and adjust their strategy as needed. Managers play an important role in implementing strategies to achieve a company’s mission and goals.

Research a company with stockholder reports available. These reports can usually be found on a company’s website. Use the report to answer the following questions:

  • What is (are) the main industry(ies) in which the company competes?
  • What business-level strategy does the company seem to be pursuing in this industry? Why?
  • What corporate-level strategies is the company pursuing? Why?
  • Have there been any major changes in its strategy recently? Why?
  • Include citations in your response.

Submit your assignment.

Answer preview

To her, planning goes beyond the mere allocation of duties and sub-division of responsibilities. Once she allocates tasks, my supervisor ensures that she regularly checks up on employees to assess their performance (Whetten et al., 2007). Through such an evaluation, the supervisor determines what areas need improvement. She then engages employees intending to help them overcome obstacles that interfere with their ability to undertake their duties effectively. She acts as the conduit of information, relaying information between employees and the company’s top management. She is also tasked with ensuring

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Global business environment